Scientists have long known that ketamine is effective at treating depression, but it has been difficult to understand exactly how it works.
Now, a team of researchers has found that it works by blocking the actions of serotonin in the brain.
This means that when depressed people take ketamine, they are not able to produce the same type of serotonin that normally happens in the prefrontal cortex.
In other words, ketamine can stop the breakdown of serotonin.
This could be a huge boon for patients struggling with depression, who may have symptoms like anxiety and mood swings.
“There is no doubt that ketamines have a great potential for treatment for depression,” says Timothy J. Kocher, a researcher at Harvard Medical School who was not involved in the new research.
“But they don’t yet have a clear pharmacological mechanism by which ketamine affects depression.”
The new research builds on previous studies that have shown that ketamphetamines have antidepressant properties in mice.
But it’s still not clear how ketamine works on the brain, and why ketamphetamine has such a different effect than other antidepressants.
One thing is clear: Ketamine’s ability to inhibit serotonin may be a key to its efficacy.
“It’s a very exciting finding,” says Christopher Wessel, a professor of psychiatry at the University of California, San Francisco, who wasn’t involved in this study.
“What it shows is that ketaminergic drugs are actually not the worst thing we can do for depression.
They are effective, and they have potential to be used therapeutically.”
The study, published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, was conducted by scientists at Harvard, the University at Albany, the Johns Hopkins University and the University College London.
KOCHER and his colleagues wanted to find out whether ketamine could block serotonin in specific parts of the brain and whether ketamphedrine blocks the breakdown in serotonin in general.
The researchers measured the brain’s levels of serotonin and the proteins called serotonin transporter (SERT) and serotonergic receptors (SRE).
They found that ketampshetamine blocked serotonin in parts of both brain regions, which are involved in depression.
The team also found that there were differences in serotonin levels between depressed people who took ketamine and people who did not take ketampheme.
So the researchers used brain imaging to map out which brain regions were involved.
“We were really excited by the results,” says Kochel.
“When we did this in mice, we found that a very small amount of serotonin was lost to the bloodstream.
That’s a problem, because you want to preserve serotonin as much as possible.”
Ketamine has a history of being used in the treatment of depression.
It’s often given as a maintenance drug or to treat severe depressive episodes.
However, ketampha is not currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a drug for depression because the FDA does not classify it as a psychostimulant.
So researchers are hopeful that ketamphetamine will become a new class of antidepressant in the near future.
Ketamphetamine can be purchased at many pharmacies and drugstores.
The FDA has not yet approved ketampamine for depression treatment, so ketamphas a long way to go before it’s considered a new drug.
But the team hopes that it will be.
“This is a very important finding, and it’s going to have a profound impact on the treatment for depressive disorders,” Koche says.